1) Wealthier people produce more carbon pollution – even the “green” ones, David Roberts, VOX, December 1, 2017.

Introduction Time Biosphere

1) Carl Sagan. The Demon Haunted World. Ballantine Books; 1995.

2) Simon L. Lewis and Mark A. Maslin. The Human Planet: How We Created the Anthropocene. Yale University Press;  2018.

3) Roger E. Bohn James E. Short. How Much Information? 2009 Report on American Consumers;

4) Will Steffen, et. al. The Trajectory of the Anthropocene: The Great Acceleration. The Anthropocene Review; January 16, 2015.

5) UN Report: Nature’s Dangerous Decline “Unprecedented”; Species Extinction Rates “Accelerating”. UN IPBES; May 6, 2018.

6) L. Resplandy, et. al. Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition. Nature; October 21, 2018.

7) Elizabeth Rush. Rising: Dispatches from the New American Shore. Milkweed Editions; 2018.

8) Geoffrey Heal. Endangered Economies; How the Neglect of Nature Threatens our Properity. Columbia University Press; 2016.

9) Chelsea Harvey. Scientific American: E&E News; March 30, 2018.

10) Ellen Gray. Unexpected future boost of methane possible from Arctic permafrost. NASA Global Climate Change; August 20, 2018.

11) Arctic Today. Dramatic Arctic warming is locked in — even with emissions reductions, UN report warns; March 14, 2019.

12) Jon Gertner. The Race to Understand Antarctica’s Most Terrifying Glacier. Wired; December 10, 2018.

13) Chelsea Harvey, Huge Hole Discovered beneath Fast-Melting Antarctic Glacier. Scientific American: E&E News; January 31, 2019.

14) Alex Fox. East Antarctica’s ice melting at an unexpectedly rapid clip, new study suggests. Science; January 14, 2019.

15) Damian Carrington. A Third of Himalayan ice cap doomed, finds report. Guardian; February 4, 2019.

16) Boden, T.A., et. al. Global, Regional, and National, Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emmissions. CDIAC; 2017.

17) Climate Action Tracker.

18) Zeke Hausfather. Explainer: How Scientists estimate “climate sensitivity”. Carbon Brief; June 2018.

19) K.D. Burke, Pliocene and Eocene provide best analogs for near-future climates. PNAS; December 10, 2018.

20) Brian Kahn. The Climate Could Hit a State Unseen in 50 Million Years. Climate Central; April 4, 2017.

21) E.G. Nisbet, et. al. Rising atmospheric methane: 2007 – 2014 growth and isotopic shift. AGU; September 2016.

22) E.G. Nisbet, et, al. Very strong atmospheric methane growth in the four years 2014 – 2017: Implications for the Paris Agreement. AGU; doi: 10.1029/2018GB006009.

23) Katy J. Sparrow, et. al. Release of ancient methane due to changing climate kept in check by ocean waters. Science Daily; January 2018.

24) Boris K. Bskaborn, et. al. Permafrost is warming at a global scale, Nature Communications; January 16, 2019.

25) Roberto Molar Candanosa. New insights into the role of clouds in Arctic climate change. Global Climate Change; June 5, 2016.

26) Tim Radford. Rain Falling on Mountains Speeds CO2 Removal. Climate Central; January 2014.

27) Louise M. Farquharson, et. al. Climate change drives widespread and rapid thermokarst development in very cold permafrost in the Canadian High Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters; 10 June 2019.

28) Matthew Green. Scientists amazed as Canadian permafrost thaws 70 years early. Reuters; June 18, 2019.

29) Kristina Pistone, et. al. Radiative Heating of an Ice-Free Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters; June 20, 2019.

30) Eric Holthaus. Greenland is Melting Away Before Our Eyes.  Rolling Stone; July 31, 2019.


1)Boden, T.A. et. al. Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel, CO2 Emissions. CDIAC; 2017.

2) W. Walker Hanlon. Coal Smoke and the Costs of the Industrial Revolution. UCLA and NBER; June 30, 2016.

3) Joseph Stromberg. The real story behind the demise of America’s once-mighty streetcars. Vox; May 7, 2015.

4) IEA. World Energy Outlook 2018.

5) Kevin Anderson. What does Science Demand? Common Dreams; October 9, 2018.

6) Fiona Harvey and Ben Doherty. China demands developed countries ‘pay their depts’ on climate change. The Guardian; December 13, 2018.

7) Jeremy Berke. Renewable energy is getting cheaper and it’s going to change everything. World Economic Forum; May 14, 2018.

8) Brad Plumer. Clean Energy is Surging, but Not Fast Enough to Solve Global Warming. NYT; November 12, 2018.

9) Justin Worland. How an Oil Boom in West Texas is Reshaping the World. Time; January 3, 2019.

10) IEA. World Energy Outlook 2017; November 2017.

11) Paul Griffin; The Carbon Majors Database. Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP); July 2017.

12) British Petroleum. Energy Economics, Oil Reserves; 2019.

13) Tokarska, et. al. The climate response to five trillion tonnes of carbon. Nature Climate Change; May 23, 2016.

14) Jim Bliss. The Quiet Road (Blog); March 20, 2008.

15) David Coady, et. al. How Large Are Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies? World Development; March 2017.

16) Sandra Laville. Top oil firms spending millions lobbying to block climate change policies, says report. The Guardian; March 22, 2019.

17) James Temple. At this rate it’s going to take nearly 400 years to transform the energy system. Technology Review; March 14, 2018.

18) Jorgen Randers. 2052: A global forecast for the next forty years;

19) McKinsey and Company. Energy 2050: Insights from the ground up.

20) BloombergNEF. Setting the Scene;

21) Zou Caineng, et al. Energy Revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era. Science Direct; July 15, 2016.

22) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Global Energy Transformation, A Roadmap to 2050; 2018 Edition.

23)Mehran Moalem. We Could Power the Entire World by Harnessing Solar Energy from 1% of the Sahara. Forbes; September 22, 2016.

24) Nuclear Power in the World Today. World Nuclear Association; February 19, 2019.

25) Tsvetana Paraskova. Global Nuclear Power Capacity Could Double by 2050.; August 10, 2017.

26) Nathanael Johnson. Electrifying News: Solar and wind power has quintupled in a decade. Grist; March 19, 2019.

27) Kingsmill Bond. 2020 Vision: Why You Should See the Fossil Peak Coming.; 2018.

28) Nicola Jones. How the World Passed a Carbon Threshold and Why It Matters. Yale Environment 360; January 26, 2017.

29) Caitlin Fithian. Data Centers: The Energy Bandit We Need to Talk About.; May 7, 2019.

Energy by Part

1) Steven J. Davis, et. al. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science; June 29, 2018.

2) US EPA. Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data; 2019.

3) Shades of Green: Electric Cars’ Emissions Around the Globe. Shrink That Footprint; February 2013.

4) Tammy Klein. Can We Decarbonize Heavy-Duty Trucking and Get Away From Diesel?; 2019.

5) Ibid. FutureFuelStrategies;2019.

6) Stephanie Searle. Decarbonizing aviation through low-carbon fuels will be beyond difficult. ICCT; November 15, 2018.

7) Decarbonizing Maritime Transport. OECD/ITF; 2018.

8) Cody Januszko. Is it cleaner to ship freight by rail and water? Carnegie Mellon University; 2018.

9) Rebecca Duff. Decarbonizing the Industrial Sector: A Long Road for Low-Carbon Manufacturing. UVA Darden; December 13, 2018.

10) Industrial sector energy consumption. US Energy Information Administration. International Energy Outlook; 2016.

11) Rebecca Duff, Path to 2060: Decarbonizing the Industrial Sector. Batten Report; December 2018.

12) Johathan Watts. Concrete: the most destructive material on Earth. The Guardian; February 25, 2019.

13) Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-Carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report; June 13, 2018.

14) The Environmental Impacts of Concrete.; 2019.

15) Ibid. Chatham House Report; June 13, 2018.

Green Energy Revisited

1) Sean Antosiak. The United States is moving away from coal, but not toward renewable energy. Medium, Environment. August 2, 2019.

2) David Szondy. Largest ever continuous oil and gas resource found in the United States. New Atlas. December 9, 2018.

3) Dan Shreve and Wade Schauer. Deep decarbonization requires deep pockets. Wood Mackenzie. 3. June 2019.

4) Shreve. Deep decarbonization.

5) Roger Pilke. Net-Zero Carbon Dioxide Emissions By 2050 Requires A New Nuclear Power Plant Every Day. Forbes. September 30, 2019.

6) IEA, World Energy Outlook 2019. November 2019.

Food, Agriculture, & Deforestation

1) Marco Springmann, Options for keeping food system within environmental limits. Nature; October 10, 2018.

2) Loise Dore. Society will collapse by 2040 due to catastrophic food shortages, study says. Independent; June 22, 2015.

3) Sara Menker. A global food crisis may be less than a decade away. TED Talk; August 2017.

4) Damian Carrington. Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild animals – study. The Guardian; May 21, 2018.

5) Lili Szilagyi. Agriculture is destabilizing the Earth System, according to recent study. CGIAR; April 22, 2018.

6) Philiip G.. Curtis, et. al. Classifying drivers of global forest loss. Science; September 4, 2018.

7) What’s Driving Deforestation? Union of Concerned Scientists; 2018.

8) Pat Mooney and Nnimmo Bassey. Who will feed a changing world – industrial agriculture or peasant food webs? Climate and Capitalism; January 7, 2018.

9) Kimberly Amadeo. Government Subsidies (Farm, Oil, Export, Etc.). The Balance; June 25, 2019.

10) Damian Carrington. Huge Reduction in meat-eating “essential” to avoid climate breakdown. The Guardian; October 10, 2018.

11) Ken Roseboro. Soil Health: The Next Agricultural Revolution. EcoWatch; January 7, 2019.

12) John Ikerd. Can Industrial Agriculture Provide Global Food Security. University of Missouri; 2013.


1) Johathan Watts. Water shortages could affect 5 billion people by 2050, UN report warns. The Guardian; March 19, 2018.

2) Ramin Skibba. Southern Europe’s Groundwater Use Will Become Unsustainable. EOS Earth & Space Science News; December 13, 2017.

3) Fiona Harvey. Water Shortages to be key environmental challenge of the century, NASA warns. The Guardian; May 16, 2018.

4) Damian Carrington. A third of ice cap doomed, finds report. The Guardian; February 4, 2019.

5) Damian Carrington. England could run short of water within 25 years. The Guardian; March 18, 2019.

6) Daniel Shemie, China has a water crisis – how can it be solved? World Economic Forum, April 29, 2016.

7) Ben Abbs. The growing water crisis in China. Global Risk Insights; August 10, 2017.

8) Skibba. op. cit. EOS; Dec 13, 2017.

9) How the United States Uses Water. Water Footprint Calculator; October 12, 2018.

10) Thomas Brown. Population Increases and climate change point to future US water shortages. AGU; February 28, 2019.

11) John A. Tures. These American Cities Are Running Out of Water. Observer; February 12, 2018.

12) Daniel L. Swain. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California. Nature Climate Change; 8, 2018.

13) Jane Braxton Little. The Ogallala Aquifer: Saving a Vital US Water Source. Scientific American; March 1, 2009.

14) Michon Scott. National Climate Assessment: Great Plains’ Ogallala Aquifer drying out. NOAA.; February 2019.

15) Richard Parker. The Rio Grande Is Dying. Does Anyone Care? NYT; September 8, 2018.



1)  Yinon M. Bar-on, et. al. The biomass distribution on Earth. PNAS; June 2018.

2) Christie Wilcox. Human-caused extinctions have set mammals back millions of years. National Geographic; October, 2018.

3) Damian Carrington. Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study. The Guardian; May 21, 2018.

4) Caspar A. Hallmann, et. al. More than 75% decline in total flying insect biomass in protected areas. PLOS|One; October 18, 2017.

5) Damian Carrington. Plummeting insect numbers “threaten collapse of nature”. The Guardian; February 10, 2019.

6) Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Nature’s dangerous decline ‘unprecedented,’ species extinction rates ‘accelerating’. Science Daily; May 6, 2019.


Ethics and Environmental Justice

1) Isabella Teti. Brave New World. Penn State.

2) Coca-Cola Charged with Groundwater Depletion and Pollution in India. Earth Talk. ThoughtCo; April 10, 2018.

3) Stephen M. Gardiner. A Perfect Moral Storm. Climate Change, Inter-generational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption. JSTOR. Environmental Values 15; 2006.

4) Ibid. page 5.

5) Ibid. page 7.

6) Ibid. pages 11-12.

7) Ibid. page 12.


Part One – Epilogue

1) Anthony D. Barnosky, et. al. Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere. Nature; Vol 486, June 7, 2012.

2) Kanta Kumari Rigaud. Climate Change Could Force Over 140 Million to Migrate Within Countries by 2050. World Bank Report; March 19, 2018.